首页 > 英语 > 雅思

简介:

备考雅思过程中总结的,也附带了一些常用词组与句式。其中不少是从英文原著中总结的地道表达,比如《Justice,what's the right thing todo》。尤其是逻辑连接词,掌握后,就达到了“独上高楼,望尽天涯路”的境界,哈哈,之后就用起来随心所欲不逾矩了.

因为雅思作文重在论述,论述重在逻辑,逻辑的表现就是逻辑连接词。灵活而不重样地使用这些词汇,即代表着语法的游刃有余,也代表着逻辑的清晰明了。

 

***********PART 1逻辑连接词***********

 

###1.1 让步###

 

1. Despite+n/ving = in spite of 尽管. (不能加句子)

Despite the fact that + 句子(太累赘)

Despite myself, … 情不自禁地…

Her words were so satirical(讽刺的)that I lost my temper in spite ofmyself。

2. Although(更书面)= though(更口语) =even if (即使,更偏假设性)=eventhough(虽然,更偏事实性)+句子

注:不能与but连用。

Devoted though we are to prosperity and freedom, we cannot shakeoff the judgmental strand of justice.用倒装

3. No matter how/what/who等= 疑问句+ever

No matter who/Whoever you are, you must keep the law.

注意:疑问句+ever 可以引导名词性从句

Whoever(≠ no matter who)comes will be welcome.

4. …, as long as…

You can do what you want, as long as you like.

5. 名词/表语/动词+ as(though)倒装,。。。,表“纵使”

Object as/though you may, I’ll go。

Small as atoms are, they are made up of still smaller units。

Lover of towns as I am, I realize that I owe a debt to my earlycountry life.

6. Whether…or… 正反两方面,。。。表“不论。。。与否”

Whether you believe it or not, it's true.

You'll have to attend the ceremony whether you're free or busy.

7. Notwithstanding +sth尽管

But notwithstanding its ancient lineage, it is open to thefollowing challenge.

8. albeit 虽然即使

You are to be given one method of communication with your rival,albeit indirect communication.

9. Be原型+主语+表语(n, adj)= whether+主语+be动词+表语(n,adj)。不论。一文学性强的虚拟语气,表让步。

Be it historical tradition, faith and culture, or social system,values and level of development, those countries or regions areoften different from one another.

 

###1.2 原因###

 

Since

As

Because

Attribute…to…把。。。归因于。。。

He attributed the opposition to a deep-seated attitude inmilitary.

The reason why+结果/ that+原因

Greed is the reason why they do not deserve the money.

Sth would explain why …

For this reason

Be due to

Owing to sth 介词

Owe to sth 动词

Account for=result in 表示导致

Systematic economic forces account for the disastrous loses.

 

###1.3 目的###

 

So

So that

Should law be neutral towards competing conceptions of virtue, sothat people can be free to choose for themselves the best way tolive?

To do sth,…

To answer it, we have to explore the meaning of justice.

In order to

In order to determine who deserves what, we have to determine whatvirtues are worthy of honor and reward.

 

###1.4 结果###

 

Accordingly

Therefore

Excessive greed is therefore a vice that a good society shoulddiscourage if it can.

Result in

This outcome will result in children starting bullying youngerones.

Thus

Hence

So

Consequently

As such

 

###1.5 时间###

 

When+句子

While+句子

Once+句子,一旦

Once the age of reason is reached, children can be rewarded forgood behavior and discouraged from bad.

As

As we encounter new situations, we move back and forth between ourjudgement and principles, revising each in light of the other.

 

###1.6 转折###

 

However,

Yet 轻微转折

And yet we worry when judgments about virtue finds their way intolaws.

On the contrary

Rather than. 并不是并没有, 前后的词性一样

This policy might lead them to stay in harm’s way rather than fleeto safety.

Rather than press for maximum advantages, people look out for oneanother.

Instead,

表示对上述方式的完全反转

Instead, a just society respects each people’s freedom to choosehis or her own conception of the

good life.

Instead of

While

Whereas

Conversely

Nevertheless

 

###1.7 类比###

 

just as/like

Similarly,

As …

They have sacrificed as surely, and as honorably, as those who havelost a limb.

The same as

Tourists find this park just the same as the one they visitedpreviously.

 

###1.8 对比###

 

While既可以对比相反的东西,也可以对比稍有不同的

Ancient theories start with virtue while modern theories start withfreedom.

By contrast, 对比之下

The virtue argument, by contrast, rests on the judgment that greedis a vice that state should

discourage.

Likewise

Compared with/to

More…than…

On the other hand

By comparison/contrast

In comparison with 介词

This essay will briefly review the cons and pros of imprisonment incomparison with job training.

Alternatively

 

###1.9 递进###

 

Furthermore

In addition to sth,

In addition to outlining the causes of this problem, this essaywill also propose solutions.

Besides,

In addition,

What’s more

Apart from…

Moreover

 

###1.10 举例###

 

The likes of 就像

Such as

Like

Their purchases of necessities

like safe lodging are forced.

In some instances. 在某些情况中

…is a case in point. 正在点儿上,指例子可以很好地阐述这个观点

Here is a case where…指出例子

Here is a case where the economy as a whole seemed to outweighconsiderations of fairness.

For instances,

For example

 

###1.11 假设###

 

If

If its price is higher, manufacturers will find it worth theirwhile to produce more goods.

Given/provided+名词, 考虑到、假如

###1.12 解释,转述###

In other words,

Prosperity matters, in other words, because it contributes to ourwelfare.

That is, that is to say

i.e.

mean that

 

###1.13 并列###

 

And

As well as

关于,至于。

In terms of/ regarding/concerning/ talking about/speaking of/whenit comes to sth/as for/for

 

###1.14 说明观点###

 

###认为/支持/反对

###认为:

Argue that.有“争论到”之意,用于对陈述相反观点

Some economists argued that the law was misconceived.

Believe that

Some believed that the exchange of goods should be governed by ajust price.

Acknowledge that.

承认,一般表示某人承认,之后会转折

I have to acknowledge that it has the advantage of highefficiency.

It is true that…but…用于承认一方后,强调另一方

Maintain that

Defenders of this law maintain that, under certain conditions, thefree market is not truly free.

Hold that

Many people hold that government should be neutral on matters ofvirtue and vice.

Insist that

Those who insist that only bleeding wounds should be count believethat …

Claim that声称

The veteran’s group claimed that doing so would “debase” thehonor.

Point out

As he points out, buyers under duress have no freedom.

Be of the opinion that

I am of the opinion that car ownership should be discouraged.

From a personal point of view,..

From a personal point of view, it is essential to reducenon-essential travel.

Conviction,坚信

My firm conviction is that punishment does not has much of a roleto play in this.

Consider…(to be).认为。。。如何

Some people favor abortion rights, and others consider abortion tobe murder.

Whereas some consider it an form of reverse discrimination againstpeople who deserve admission on their merits.

sb’s point is that…某人的意思是

Plato’s point is that to grasp the meaning of justice and thenature of the good life, we must rise above from the prejudices androutines of everyday life.

###支持:

Support

Favor sth/doing sth

The captain favors including mental injuries.

Advocates/defenders/proponents 反对者、支持者

Defend sth捍卫,支持

Some defend affirmative actions in college admissions as a way ofrighting past wrongs.

###反对:

Argue against. 反对

Jeff, a pro-market commentator writing the book Boston Globe,argued against this law.

Reject

反对某种观点/行为

Jim rejected the notion that these “unconscionable” pricesreflected a truly free exchange.

A civilized country should reject the torture of terrorsuspects.

The argument for or against sth. 对某话题的支持/反对观点

We should also consider one further argument for this law.

Oppose sth/sb/doing

A veteran’s group opposed awarding the medal for psychologicalinjuries.

Disagree

Citizens of pluralist societies disagree about such things?

Disagree with

Therefore I have to disagree almost entirely with the givenstatement.

Opponents 反对者,是名词

Not surprisingly, the opponents of this law invoke these twosimilar arguments for free markets.

###表示优点缺点

advantages and disadvantages

Its advantages overweight its disadvantages.

pros and cons

strengths and weaknesses

merits and demerits

sth do more good than harm

benefits and problems

Even if high prices call forth a greater supply of goods, thisbenefit has to be weighed against the burden such prices impose onthose least to afford them.

On the plus/positive/negative side

On the downside

###做结论

Conclude that.

So we can conclude that ….

In brief/in summary/conclusion

To summarize

###根据

According to/Based on

According to the textbook context, this question divides ancientand modern political thought.

###引出话题

It is said that…据说

It seems that

The focus of … is on sth.

The focus of this essay is on the causes of and solutions to thisproblem.

 

***********PART 2 重要句式结***********

 

原则:主谓宾是骨头,逻辑连接词是骨头间的韧带,其他修饰词则是肌肉。

名词从句=名词

What I am proficient in is ancient Chinese literature.

That’s where he met me.

Those

Those+adj/ving/ved/to v/介词,代表一类人或物

All those eligible will receive a cash handout.

The new law clearly benefits those earning the most money.

Only 18 percent of those surveyed opposed the idea.

I'm going to sort these old books into those to be kept and thoseto be thrown away.

Have some consideration for those without a job.

Those+从句who(人)/which(物)/whose(表归属)/in which(表位置),Those相当于一个名词

Only those who had booked in advance were allowed in.

We must try to find out those which may be attacked mosteasily.

This disease is more likely to strike those whose immune systemsare already below par.

The poems which he wrote in the countryside are generally agreed tobe those in which he found his true voice.

He who can be a best servant can be a best leader.

在句子中,任何名词随时都可以用 ved/ving/介词/形容词来修饰,可以使得单句也有复杂结构,却比定语从句简单

疑问词+to+v

I am considering how to manage this assignment But who is to judgewhat is virtue and what is vice?

动词分词做定语(ving, ved),可以替代定语从句

His work as a consultant consisted in advising foreign companies onthe siting of new factories.

句子,especially+名词或者从句. 这样可以对句子进行更加精确的描述。

Members of a competitive team can always keep them motivated,especially when confronted with tough situation and fiercecompetition.

…, if any. (表示如果有…的话)

State your hypothesis or theory, if any.

What, if anything, should the law do about it?

Rather, 单独出现表示“更准确的说”

Rather, parents should employ a variety of methods to disciplinetheir children.

用插入语. 补充信息,增强节奏感:两种形式:逗号或者横线隔开

But in a market society, the economists observed, prices are set bydemand and supply.

They are no more “special” or “fair” than other prices that marketconditions—including

those promoted by a hurricane—may bring about. 补充信息。

Higher prices have the advantages, economists argued, of limitingthe use of such things by consumers. 转述说的话时,“某某说”可以做插入语。

Jeff, a pro-market commentator writing the book Boston Globe,argued against this law on similar grounds. 对身份的补充。

Many people, including those who support this law, find the virtueargument discomfiting. 包含的对象的具体说明。

All they ever see is the play of shadows on the wall, a reflectionof objects they can never apprehend. 同位语,用以解释或者补充前面的名词

To do sth 作主语

To punish a very young child is both wrong and foolish.

By doing sth, … 表示做事的方式途径

By providing incentives for suppliers to produce more of the neededgoods, it do more good than harm.

副词开头,句子。节奏感强

Not surprisingly, the opponents of this law invoke these twosimilar arguments for free markets.

Doing/To do A is not doing/to do B. 做A并不是做B. 表示从反面对A的补充

To acknowledge the moral forces of virtue argument is not to insistit must always prevail over competing considerations.

特殊的定语从句,介词+which定语从句与介词的妙用,这需要动词与介词本身就是固定搭配

It is about cultivating the attitudes and the qualities ofcharacters, on which a good society depends.

Cannot …without…没有。。。就不能。。。

Aristotle maintains that we cannot figure out what a justconsideration is without first reflecting of the most desirable wayof life.

主语倒装句

At the heart of the disagreement are rival conceptions of moralcharacter.

Underlying the phenomenon was a profound reason.

Sth is not (that)…but (that)…,

成分要一致,是。。。而不是。。。

The public’s objection to the bonuses is not that they reward greedbut that they reward failure.

The answer is that moral reflection is not a solitary pursuit but apublic endeavor.

构词形式:A-被动: 被A。。。的

A market-driven society

A knowledge-based economy

副词+形容词

Financially better-off

Do 用于动词前表示强调

He did want them to take responsibility for their failure.

反问,表示强烈语气

Couldn’t it be argued that难道不能认为。。。,

How can it be。。 怎么可能。。

What would sth be if…如果…sth 会怎样?

With+ved/ving/to do/sth,

动词分词前置或者后置:ved, 句子,ving…

Awarded the Noble Prize, Yoyouyou become known by public, makingher the most influential figure of this year.

Confronted with this situation, we…..

Socrates suggests that, having glimpsed the sun, only thephilosopher is fit to rule the cave dwellers, if he can somehow becoaxes into the darkness where they live.

用虚拟语气(动词用过去式),表示未发生或者假想发生的事儿

 

Let us not forget either that…咱们也不要忘记。。。

Let us forget either that traditional products, whether these bemedicines or food, provide employment for local people.

 

***********PART 3 词组与句子搭配***********

 

Include but not limited in sth

We welcome potential candidates including but not limited those whohave affluent experience in education.

Both...and ….(两者都)

Now women work both before and after having their children.

Either…or…(肯定句中标两者选其一,否定句中表两者都不)

Either you or I am wrong.

Neither…nor…(两者都不)

Neither he nor she is at home today.

The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, butit will never forget what they did here.

There is no such thing as xx. 并没有这种叫xx的

There is no such thing as a “just price”.

Too…to….太。。。以至于不能。。。

His boss is too hard to get along with.

It is worthwhile/worth one’s while/worth while doing(=worth doing)/to do something(= worthy to do sth).

Be worth+名词形式(名词,doing sth)

Be worthy to do sth/ of doing sth

If its price is higher, manufacturers will find it worth theirwhile to produce more goods.

It points out a moral argument worth seriously taking.

Sb get sth done. /sth get done. 表示sth 被怎么样。

It is how goods and services get allocated in a free society.

引出问题

The debate about sth raises hard questions of …

Take advantage of 利用使用

Is it wrong for sellers of goods and services to take advantage ofa natural disaster by charging whatever the market will bear?

Not only(simply)…, (but) also…

These questions are not only about how individuals should treat oneanother. They are also about what the law should be, how societyshould be organizes.

More than. 不单单

Over the last decade, the prices more than doubled. But the outrageat this behavior is more

than mindless anger. More than a personal vice, it is at odds withcivic virtue.

The question is … /the problem with… is that问题是

The question is whether, or to what extent, people are free ratherthan forced.

Mean that+从句,mean doing sth意味着

Aristotle teaches that justice means that giving people what theydeserve.

It is … that/to do…

So it is understandable that people are not keen to reward it.

The line between A and B..

The line between success and failure is clear.

Have a hard time doing sth. 艰难地做某事

I have a hard time understanding the public’s furry.

Once and for all一劳永逸

Political philosopher cannot resolve these arguments once and forall.

Turn to doing sth转而做某事

People turn to buying new brands.

Have access to sth

Some may argue that all people are entitled to have access to thesame products.

Tell/distinguish…from…/ Tell/distinguish the difference between Aand B.

Have long been 很早就。。。

There has long been controversy about the negative effects oftravelling by cars

否定或者消极的陈述,let alone …。更不用说。。。

He cannot read an article fluently, let alone write a decentessay.

标签:
评论加载中...